Diamond carat weight refers to the actual physical weight of a Diamond on a scale. A metric "carat" is defined as 200 milligrams. Carats are often, also referred to as 'points.' There are 100 points in 1.00 carat. This allows for measurements down to the hundredth of a decimal place and allows for extreme precision. For example, a 0.50 carat Diamond may be referred to as a “half a carat Diamond,” or a ‘50 point’ Diamond.
Natural diamonds mined from the earth are 99.9% carbon based. Before being mined, Diamonds are exposed to tremendous heat and pressure deep under the surface of the earth. This process can cause nitrogen to be infused into parts of the Diamond. The less of these natural characteristics that a Diamond has, determines its’ place on a Clarity Grading Scale. The fewer inclusions a Diamond has, the more rare it is, and therefore increases the value of it.
The Diamond Color Scale works similarly to a Diamond Clarity Scale, as in the less Color that is in a Diamond, the higher its value will be. The more chemically pure a Diamond is, the less it will contain any hints or hues ‘Color’. However, when Diamonds have such intense Color such as “Pink Diamonds” or “Canary Yellow Diamonds”, they are classified as a ‘Fancy Color’, in which case they do not follow the traditional Color Scale. The standardized Color Scale is set by the GIA's D-to-Z Diamond Color-Grading System, which measures the degree of colorlessness in a Diamond, by comparing it to ‘Master Stones’ of varying Color, under controlled lighting.
The Cut is possibly the most misunderstood characteristic of a Diamond, yet regarded by jewellers as the most important. Often a Diamond is called a ‘Brilliant Cut’ or ‘Princess Cut’, which is describing whether it is a round or square shaped Diamond. This can be confusing, as this is actually the ‘Shape’ of the Diamond and can come in many other shapes as well, including; Cushion, Marquise, Oval, Pear etc.
The 'Cut', more accurately is how proportionately a Diamond is Cut to better reflect the light. The accuracy and symmetry of the angles Cut on a Diamond, known as 'Facets', controls the intensity of how much light is refracted back out the top of a Diamond, which is what makes it sparkle.